The conference on ‘Steroids and Nervous System’ held in Torino (Italy) is an important international point of discussion for scientists involved in this exciting and expanding research field. Several topics have been presented through the various meetings. Two broad areas have been explored: the impact of gonadal hormones on brain circuits and behaviour, as well as the mechanism of action of neuroactive steroids. Relationships among steroids, brain and behaviour, the sexual differentiation of the brain and the impact of gonadal hormones, the interactions of exogenous steroidal molecules (endocrine disrupters) with neural circuits and behaviour, and how gonadal steroids modulate the behaviour of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurones, have been the topics of several lectures and symposia during this series of meetings. At the same time, many contributions have been dedicated to the biosynthetic pathways, the physiopathological relevance of neurosteroids, the demonstration of the cellular localisation of different enzymes involved in neurosteroidogenesis, the mechanisms by which steroids may exert some of their effects, both the classical and nonclassical actions of different steroids, the role of neuroactive steroids on neurodegeneration, neuroprotection, and the response of the neural tissue to injury. In these years, this field has significantly advanced and neuroactive steroids have emerged as new potential therapeutic tools to counteract neurodegenerative events.